What a garden without black currant, without this culture, rare in its qualities. It grows successfully and bears fruit in the south and north, of course, currant cultivation is possible even beyond the Arctic Circle. It is very undemanding to soils, but it feels better on rather loose, clayey. So, having filled the planting hole with the earthen mixture that she likes, it is quite possible to grow it on a plot with very bad soil. You can easily find a place for it even in a shady garden.
Most blackcurrant varieties are self-fertile, that is, they do not depend on pollinators. This means that one variety can be dispensed with. True, if different varieties are planted, then the berry yield is higher. This unpretentiousness of black currant has served her badly: they take care of it less than other plants and get less harvest than it could give. And the currant responds with joy to good care, gives it such an abundance of berries that it is enough for itself and for kind people.
And one more distinctive quality is inherent in black currant – disease resistance. This means that there is no need to stock up on pesticides for its health improvement. And there is no need to talk about its useful qualities. To be honest, we do not have another culture that would be so healing for a person, would contain so many vitamins, microelements, biologically active substances. And not only in berries, but also in shoots, leaves, buds. Black currant is extremely useful. Planting and caring for her is pretty simple.
The best varieties of black currant for growing in the Non-Black Earth Zone are: early – Dove Seedling, Grape; early middle – Moskovskaya, Black Lisavenko; then the middle ones – Binar, Belorusskaya Sweet, Krasa Altai, Minai Shmyrev, Ojebin, Pilot Alexander Mamkin, Bagira, Belaya, Detskoselskaya, Vologda, Katyusha; mid-late – Klausonovskaya.
How currants grow
Currant – shrub, 1-2.5 m… The shape of the bush depends on the varietal characteristics, in our region it is spreading, which is a disadvantage, since it is difficult to care for it. The black currant bush lives for 10-20 years, on poor soils – 6-8 years. Formed from basal shoots developing from underground buds. In the fall of the next year, two-year-old branches are grown from them, a year later – three-year ones, etc. Although the bush lives up to 10 years, the branches bear fruit for a relatively short time (in Golubka, for example, 4 years), so the zealous owner annually cuts out old and weak branches.
The age of the branches is determined by the annual increments. Take a closer look and you will see rings – notches that separate the increase from last year. The branches and the color of the bark are different – annual growths of a lighter color.
Black currant bears fruit mainly on annual growths, and on three to four-year-old berries it is not enough. Productivity depends on the normal pollination process of the flowers. Often, gardeners complain: currants bloomed profusely, and they collected few berries. This is why this happens because fertilized flowers do not tie berries from self-pollination. Berries are tied if pollinating varieties are planted nearby. And the bees? the gardener will ask. The fact is that they are reluctant to visit currants even in good weather. Therefore, dear gardeners, it is very important to have self-fertile varieties. This is a Dove Seedling, Stakha – New Altai, Zoya, Belorusskaya Sweet, Memory Michurin and others. In terms of ripening, the varieties do not bear fruit at the same time, the berries ripen first in the varieties Grape, Seedling Golubki, Zoya.
What currants need
It is known about the winter hardiness of black currant, but this does not mean that it can withstand any frosts. So, at low temperatures, annual growths are often repeated – the kidneys freeze out. Due to sharp fluctuations in temperature and an abundance of sunlight in February-March, burns occur, covering part of the branches in a strip up to20 cm, and most often this happens in open places. Currants especially suffer from low temperatures during the flowering period – this is another reason why there are few berries.
It treats light well, in the shade it gives a weak harvest, and it is more damaged by diseases.
Are currants moisture-loving? Yes. Indeed, in the wild, it grows along the banks of rivers, streams, in swampy forests. And her root system is shallow. But where the spring waters stagnate, she is uncomfortable, the bushes are covered with lichen and die. To grow currants, soil is needed loose, with an optimal acidity of 6-6.5. More than other berry crops reacts to fertilizers.
We plant currants correctly
If you want black currants to grow well on your site, planting and care should not take the last place. 3-4 weeks before planting, the soil is prepared: they dig it to the depth of the arable layer, add 0.25-0.8KG lime on 1 m2,4-6 Kgorganic fertilizers. Distance between rows2 m, in the row 0.7-1m… 10 days before planting, holes are dug 40×40-50 cm, contribute 6-8 Kg compost 0.2-0.3KG superphosphate and 0.1 -0.15 kgpotassium salt. The correct planting is autumn, it must be carried out together: one holds the plant, straightens the roots, the other covers it with earth and compresses it with his feet so that there are no voids. And immediately water each bush with three to five buckets. The soil surface is mulched with a layer of humus or peat. For better growth, the bush is planted at an angle of 45 degrees so that it does not pull out with a slight twitch, and cut off, leaving 2-4 buds above the soil.
During the growing season, liquid fertilizing is applied under the bushes, in the phase of flowering or growth of ovaries, foliar (by spraying) fertilizing with potassium permanganate and boric acid is practiced at 1-1.5 gon a bucket of water. This increases the yield. Spraying is carried out in cloudy weather so that the solution does not evaporate. Watering and sprinkling can save currants from frost.
If correct pruning is not done, the bushes become thick, the berries become smaller. 12-15 branches of different ages with strong growths is the best option. There should be 3-4 root shoots and they should be left at a distance of 1015 cmone from the other. Rejuvenating pruning is done within 2-3 years, cutting out old branches to the base, and forming a new bush from the young. This work is autumn, in the spring it is necessary to have time before bud break.