Not only diseases, but also cabbage pests pose a great danger to the crop: caterpillars of cabbage and turnip whites, cabbage moths and cabbage scoops. Cabbage white is found everywhere. Butterfly large,6 cmin wingspan. The wings are powdery white, the top of the front wings with a wide black border. Pupae overwinter on trees, buildings, on weeds in the field. Butterflies of the cabbage white fly out of the pupae in mid-May; three weeks after the departure, the females begin laying eggs on cruciferous plants, preferring cabbage. Eggs are placed on the underside of the leaves in clusters of a few each. In total, a butterfly can lay 250-300 eggs per development cycle. After 8-10 days, caterpillars hatch from the eggs, which initially live in colonies on the underside of the leaf, scraping off its flesh. Adult caterpillars are yellowish-green, up to4 cm, are located on the upper side of the leaf and eat away the pulp with the exception of the veins.
Turnip white. Butterfly in wingspan 4-5 cm, in dense light yellowish-white hairs. The butterfly is similar in appearance to the cabbage white. Its development begins with the fact that the female lays eggs one at a time on leaves of cabbage, turnip, rutabaga, and radish. Caterpillars appear after 7-11 days and lead a solitary life, they harm in July-August. Caterpillars are velvety green, with barely noticeable thin yellow stripes on the back and sides. Caterpillar length 20-24 mm. Gnawing on the leaves, cabbage pests first make small irregularly shaped holes in them, and then destroy the leaf blade along with thick veins and bite into the head of white cabbage, causing it to rot and the complete death of the plant.
The cabbage scoop is a dark brown butterfly. body length approx.20 mm, in wingspan 50 mm. Eggs are laid in heaps from 8 to 200 pieces on the underside of the leaves of all cultivated plants from the cruciferous family. The caterpillars emerging from the eggs are naked, thick, dark green, brown or gray, there are three whitish lines on the back, and on the sides there is one wide yellow strip, the length of an adult caterpillar is up to5 cm. Grown up caterpillars avoid light, hide in shelters during the day and feed exclusively at night. Harms many cultures. More often, the cabbage scoop damages cabbage and other cruciferous plants. It also attacks onions, peas, and beets. Caterpillars eat out oblong-rounded holes in the leaves of white cabbage, and when heads are formed, they penetrate inside them, make moves, which causes their decay. In cauliflower, the caterpillars damage the inflorescences, in the beet – the central leaves, in the onion, the caterpillars bite into the feathers and eat them away. Having finished feeding, the caterpillars go to the soil to pupate, where their development cycle continues.
Cabbage moth – butterfly in wingspan 11 -16 mm. The front wings are narrow, brownish or grayish-brown above, with a yellowish stripe along the posterior margin. Butterflies emerge from hibernating pupae in May and lay their eggs on wild and cultivated cruciferous plants. Eggs are placed in groups of several on the underside of the leaves, usually along the veins. The female lays up to 300 eggs. Caterpillars emerging from eggs are light green in color, with small black bristly sparse hairs. Caterpillars bite into the leaf and eat out a narrow cavity in it – a mine. Late caterpillars leave the mine and, settling on the lower surface of the leaves, gnaw out the parenchyma of the leaf with rounded depressions, without touching the skin of the opposite side. Such damage looks like a window covered with a transparent film. Subsequently, the skin breaks through, and the recess becomes through. In the future, the caterpillars crawl onto the tender leaves of the tying head. The harmfulness of the cabbage moth lies in traumatizing tissues and a sharp reduction in the assimilating surface of plants. The greatest damage is manifested in the hottest period of summer. Caterpillars develop for 1.5-2 weeks and pupate on leaves. Butterflies emerge from pupae in 1-2 weeks, giving rise to the next generation. Depending on weather conditions, the cabbage moth can have from 3 to 4 generations. Wintering pupae remain on cabbage stumps and weeds of the cabbage family. Butterflies emerge from pupae in 1-2 weeks, giving rise to the next generation. Depending on weather conditions, the cabbage moth can have from 3 to 4 generations. Wintering pupae remain on cabbage stumps and weeds of the cabbage family. Butterflies emerge from pupae in 1-2 weeks, giving rise to the next generation. Depending on weather conditions, the cabbage moth can have from 3 to 4 generations. Wintering pupae remain on cabbage stumps and weeds of the cabbage family.
Control measures for leaf-eating pests of cabbage
- Planting seedlings of cabbage in the early stages.
- It is necessary to periodically inspect plantings and carry out manual collection of eggs and caterpillars before their active development.
- Thorough weed control.
- After the first signs of the disease appear, spray the plants with one of the following preparations: Kinmiks, Inta-Vir, Biorin, Fury, Karbofos – 10% w.p.
- Folk remedies can be used against leaf-eating pests: large burdock or burdock, large celandine, tops of tomatoes and potatoes. Grind flowering plants with a root, pour water, leave for a day, sprinkle.
- In autumn, after harvesting cabbage, the destruction of plant residues on which pests overwinter, to carry out a deep digging of the soil.