Rowan has firmly entered the ethnic design and has become the national treasure of the country. It can be found in the landscape design of parks, alleys and boulevards. Poems and legends are written about her.
Rowan is a frost-resistant shrub or tree, reaching a height of up to 10 meters. The crown in diameter exceeds 600 cm. The tree has a strong root system that penetrates deep into the soil. The leaves of the mountain ash are elongated, pointed to the upper edge, having a light green color in summer and purple-yellow in autumn. The flowering period comes in late autumn. The flowers are in clusters of pink-white or cream.
In the middle of summer, the flowers are replaced by clusters of orange-red berries, showing off on the branches until the end of winter.
The taste of the berries is tart, sweet-sour, with a bitter aftertaste. Fruit picking is carried out from mid-August to the end of September. Use fruits in cooking for cooking:
Collecting and sowing seeds
To grow rowan from seeds, it is necessary to prepare high-quality seed material. To do this, in the fall, before the arrival of frost, when the leaves begin to fall off and the berries turn red, choose clusters with dense berries that do not have damage and rot. The berries are picked and carefully kneaded. Then they are poured with cold water and left for an hour to allow them to be well saturated with moisture, after which the seeds are washed, those that float to the surface are thrown away, since they are not suitable for sowing and will not give seedlings. The seeds that have settled to the bottom are mixed with sawdust , laid out in a container in a thin layer and kept at a temperature of + 13-15 degrees for 25-30 days. Then the seeds are placed in a refrigerator with a temperature of 0 degrees and kept for 125-130 days before sowing.
This procedure has the following advantages:
- Increases seed germination;
- Identifies seed material suitable for planting;
- Helps the selected seeds to maintain their germination until the moment of sowing;
- Seeds are saturated with substances useful for development.
Sow stratified seeds in early spring. By this time, the ground on the site should warm up a little.
The place for sowing seeds should be well lit, the soil should be neutral and pass moisture and air well.
Seeds are sown on the beds, without getting out of the substrate in which they were located. This will help them grow better. The seeds laid out on the surface of the soil are covered with humus mixed with soil. The layer thickness should not exceed ten mm.
The distance between rows of crops should be at least 30 cm. In a row, seeds are sown densely, since their germination is low.
Sowing seeds can also be done in the fall, immediately after harvest. In the soil prepared in advance, grooves are made 15 mm deep, the seeds are laid out and sprinkled with a layer of humus. For the winter, beds with crops are covered with foliage.
Features of cultivation and care
Seeds germinate almost at the same time. After the emergence of seedlings, when the seedlings are a little stronger and 2 true leaves appear on them, the first thinning is necessary, leaving an interval of three cm between the seedlings. The second thinning is performed when five true leaves grow on the seedlings. The distance between them is left 6 cm. The next year, in the spring, the final thinning is performed, leaving the strongest and most developed specimens. The interval between plants should be at least 10 cm.
For good growth and development of seedlings, it is necessary to carry out the following care measures:
- Watering is carried out regularly, as the top layer of soil dries. Watering should be plentiful, but the plant should not be flooded.
- Loosening the soil is performed after each watering to prevent stagnation of moisture in the soil and the formation of a crust that prevents the penetration of oxygen.
- Weed removal is performed at each weeding.
- Fertilize the plant with slurry in the spring. For 1 sq. meter contribute 5 kg of fertilizer.
Reproduction by cuttings
Rowan can be propagated using green or lignified cuttings. Reproduction by lignified cuttings begins in the third decade of September. From the rowan tree, annual shoots are cut, grown on branches of two years of age.
The cuttings are cut from the base or from the middle of the shoot, the length of the cutting should be up to 20 cm. The top of the shoot is not suitable for cuttings. The top cut of the cutting should be made at an angle, and the bottom cut straight. The cutting must have at least six buds.
The cuttings are planted in the ground at an angle of 45 degrees, leaving two upper buds on the surface. The earth around the cutting is compacted so that there are no voids, watered and mulched with peat.
Green cuttings are harvested during the period of active growth. To do this, it is necessary to cut off the tops of the shoots with a crown, up to 15 cm long. The lower sheets are removed, the upper ones are shortened by half.
The lower cut is dipped into the Kornevin solution for 12 hours, then washed under running water. Planted cuttings for rooting at an angle in the sand, mixed with peat in a ratio of 1:1. The distance between the cuttings is at least 3.5 cm. After planting, the cuttings are irrigated with settled warm water and covered with cut plastic bottles and placed in a cold greenhouse.
It is necessary to regularly water and irrigate the cuttings. With proper care, rooting will occur in 21-30 days. The cuttings overwinter in the greenhouse. Rooted cuttings are planted on the bed for growing the next year in the spring.
Propagation of mountain ash by red grafting
One of the ways to propagate mountain ash is the split grafting method. In January, cuttings of one-year-old shoots are cut, collected in bunches and buried in a vertical position in the ground to a depth of 150 mm.
At the beginning of spring, an annual seedling is selected, it is removed from the ground and the roots are cleaned from the soil. The root in the upper part is split to a depth of three cm. Next, you should choose the most developed cutting and make two cuts in the form of a wedge in the lower part. The top of the cutting is cut with an oblique cut above the upper kidney.
The cutting with the lower wedge-shaped cut is placed in a split, and the junction is wrapped with polyethylene, and the top of the scion is treated with garden pitch. The seedling is planted in a greenhouse, making sure that the junction remains on the soil surface. For rooting, it is necessary to mix peat with sand in equal proportions.
Reproduction by layering
Before the breeding procedure, the site must be dug up and weeds removed. In the prepared soil, a groove is made and a bent one-year-old shoot is laid in it, pinning the top. Secure it with wire staples. When shoots 10 cm high appear, sprinkle them with humus. With the growth of shoots by another 15 cm, the procedure is repeated.
Reproduction by root offspring
Every year, many root shoots grow near the trunk. They are used for reproduction. The shoots are cut and transplanted into the hole at a permanent place of growth.
The hole is dug 80×80, leaving an interval of six meters between seedlings. Garden soil mixed with compost in the same amount is laid in the hole, a pinch of superphosphate, ash and two shovels of rotted mullein are added. At the end of planting, the trunk is cut by 1/3 and watered.
Popular rowan varieties
The most popular varieties of rowan red are:
Tree 6-10 meters high, with a pyramidal crown. The leaves are oblong in shape, consisting of smaller leaves from 10 to 15 pieces. The color is dark green. The fruits are collected in bunches of yellow color. The taste is sweet-sour, tart. Blooms with white flowers. Planting period – autumn, spring.
A tree up to three meters high, with a round crown. The leaves are light green. Blooms with white flowers. The fruits are purple in color, the taste is sweet and sour. The fruiting period begins in the fifth year.
A tree up to 4 meters high has a rounded rare crown. The shoots are brown, the leaves are dull, rich green. The fruits are round, pointed at the base of a red-pink color. The taste is sweet and sour.
It is a branched shrub up to 3 meters high. After seven years of growth, under the weight of the fruits, the crown becomes sprawling. The period of fruit ripening is the end of summer – the beginning of autumn. The fruits have a black skin with a silvery coating. The taste is sweet and sour, tart.
Useful properties and contraindications
In folk medicine, the healing properties of mountain ash were used to prepare tinctures, decoctions, syrups. Rowan berries are useful for:
- gynecological problems;
- metabolic disorders;
- cardiovascular diseases;
It is contraindicated to eat fruits with:
- increased blood clotting;
- tendency to form blood clots.
It is believed that the mountain ash planted next to the house will take away the negative from it, caring for it will bestow its powerful energy.