In areas with cold winters, garlic is planted outdoors in the fall about 3-4 weeks before the soil freezes. It is necessary that the root system has time to develop well and be able to endure repeated freezing and thawing of the soil, and with the beginning of the next spring, ensure the rapid development of plants. In the central regions of the Non-Black Earth Region, the optimal time for planting winter garlic is September 20-25.
Ridges need to be prepared 1-1.5 months before planting, so that the earth has time to settle. Planting method – tape, three-line, as for onions: 20-25 cm between rows, the distance between the teeth in the rows is 3-6 cm, depending on the size. The larger the slice that you planted, the larger the bulb will grow from it. The planting depth of the cloves is 5-7 cm. Under favorable growing conditions, garlic can be planted in the spring. For spring planting outdoors, soft-necked garlic is best because this type is highly viable and produces large bulbs. The timing of planting garlic in the spring is the end of April – the beginning of May. They are planted in the same way as winter, but at a depth of 4-5 cm.
Use of mulch
Snow cover usually reliably protects planted garlic from freezing on open ground during winter. But if this is not enough to provide reliable care, planted slices should be covered with mulch. Straw, coniferous spruce branches, peat or humus (2 cm) should be used as mulch. Remove the mulch early in the spring. Freshly cut grass is great for mulching garlic plantings. Such a mulch perfectly retains moisture in the soil, in the spring it can not be removed, and by the beginning of harvesting, almost nothing remains of it.
Keep weeds out of your garlic beds during cultivation. Like all onions, garlic cannot compete with weeds. Cut off flower stalks that appear on garlic plants. The old rule was to remove the flower stalks as soon as they appear, which determines the size of the bulb, but if the flower stalks are cut later, the shell of the bulbs becomes dense, which improves their preservation.
When to remove garlic from the garden
The onset of the period when the energy of garlic plants stops flowing into the leaves and begins to go into the bulbs depends on the length of the daylight hours. Non-shooting garlic is harvested when the leaves fall, and shooters – when the leaves and arrows turn yellow. You should not wait for the full ripening of the bulbs on the vine. During rains, their secondary growth may begin. Usually winter garlic is removed from the garden in July, spring – in August – early September.
It is important to choose the right time for harvesting garlic, because if the cloves outgrow and break the shell in which they are enclosed, this will worsen not only the appearance of the bulb, but also the keeping quality.
You need to remove the garlic from the garden on a dry sunny day, dry it for two weeks, and then cut the roots and leaves. For drying, the bulbs are laid out in a warm, dry, dark place, with good air circulation. Do not allow the bulbs to dry in the sun, this worsens their safety. The crop must be cleaned of dirt, but in no case should it be washed.
Storage of garlic
Store the garlic crop in a cool (the closer to 00C, the better), dry, well-ventilated place. Do not store garlic in the refrigerator and do not separate the heads into cloves, as whole heads keep better.