How to grow coffee from seeds at home

how to grow coffee from seeds at home Blog

Not many amateur flower growers know that such an exotic plant as a coffee tree can be grown in an apartment. No special knowledge is required for this, the main thing is to get acquainted with some of the nuances of agricultural technology. The features of growing coffee from seeds at home will be discussed in the article.

Coffee

Some facts from the history of coffee

Since the coffee plant and its fruits have been known for a long time, many myths and legends have developed about it.

It is believed that for the first time they learned about a tasty and healthy drink in Ethiopia. The discoverer is called the shepherd Coldy, who drew attention to the goats that ate red berries. Animals became active and awake even at night. He shared his observations with friends, they also began to eat berries. The coffee drink began to be brewed later.

Coffee

Interesting Facts

Here are some of them:

  1. Coffee is the most sought after drink in the world.
  2. The Japanese have come up with Coffee Day, which is celebrated on October 1st. Japan is the country that occupies the 3rd place in terms of the consumption of a delicious drink.
  3. The Japanese take coffee baths to tone up. 20 minutes is enough to get rid of fatigue. In Tokyo, coffee saunas use up to 13 tons of coffee solution annually.
  4. The amazing animal musanga eats only coffee beans. Coffee is made from its excrement. This divine drink is considered the most expensive in the world and is highly valued by gourmets.
  5. If nothing is added to coffee, you get a low-calorie drink. That is why black coffee is widely used in various weight loss diets.
  6. Coffee beans not only invigorate, but also have a lot of useful properties, which have long been noticed by doctors. A drink made from coffee beans can be used to prevent Parkinson’s disease, dementia, the formation of cancer cells, gallstones.

It is clear that the drink brings benefits only if it is not abused. Only 100 cups of drink can harm, but, of course, no one drinks that much.

Description of Arabica coffee

A coffee tree

The Arabica coffee tree belongs to the perennial plants of the Rubiaceae family. Under normal conditions, it grows up to 2-3 meters. Today there are many varieties. When growing coffee in an apartment, dwarf forms are used, the height of which is not more than a meter.

Dark green foliage is oblong, leathery, with wavy edges. Arabica coffee blooms with small white flowers. Fragrant flowers emerge from the axils of the leaves, represented by false umbrellas, collected in bunches of 6-16 pieces.

Flowering begins in April and continues until May. Arabica is a self-pollinating plant. The set fruits are similar to berries of yellow-green color, when ripe they turn red. It is important to remember that inflorescences are formed only on the shoots of the first year.

A ripe coffee fruit has a dense skin on the outside. The pulp tastes sweet and sour. Each berry contains a pair of seeds, the length of which is 8-13 cm. Fruiting begins 4-5 years after sowing the seeds. When propagated by cuttings, plants bloom earlier.

How coffee grows

A coffee tree

If you decide to grow a coffee tree at home, you need to know how it grows. Tree growth is slow. After germination, the first leaf is forced only by four months. Then it will definitely fall off.

During the first year, the stem stem grows up to 15-20 cm. By nine months, skeletal branches appear, a crown is formed, the plant begins to branch. With pruning, do not rush yet, so as not to harm. Although if the side shoots become very long, they are pruned a little.

The branches are located in relation to the trunk at a right angle, so the crown of the coffee tree is somewhat similar to a Christmas tree. In subsequent years of cultivation, it is necessary to form a crown using pruning.

Propagation of coffee cuttings

Coffee

Coffee is propagated by seed or cuttings. Both methods are effective, but propagation by cuttings, especially for beginner gardeners, is more acceptable and not laborious. For propagation, green cuttings of an adult coffee tree are used.

Cutting preparation

The stalk is cut from the last year’s branch in the middle part of the crown. It should have at least 4 leaves. Such a cutting has bud embryos, so the new plant branches faster and blooms early.

To cut the cutting, use a sharp knife with a previously disinfected blade. The twig is cut 3 cm below the leaf. A needle is immediately taken and the stalk is scratched along the bottom two leaves so that the root system is better formed.

After this, the blanks must be placed in any solution to improve root formation.

Experienced flower growers soak cuttings:

  • in a solution of one spoon of honey and a glass of water;
  • in a solution of heteroauxin, strictly according to the prescription.

Whatever composition is chosen, only the part that has been scratched needs to be soaked. The cuttings are kept only in an upright position.

Soil composition

For planting the cuttings, it is necessary to prepare loose soil into which water and air easily pass. Take sour swamp peat chips and perlite in equal proportions. To destroy harmful microflora, the soil is shed with a light pink solution of manganese.

Features of planting a cutting

The cuttings are planted in the ground to the first leaf, no deeper than 2-3 cm. In order for rooting to be successful, a perforated plastic bag is pulled over the container from above. Thanks to the holes, natural ventilation will occur, and you can water through them. The container is placed on a window in partial shade.

For rooting to be successful, it is necessary to maintain a temperature of at least 25 degrees. High temperature and humidity – that’s what the cutting needs. But temperatures above 30 degrees are detrimental to rooting.

After planting, the stalk is watered and the growth of the plant is closely monitored for the first 14 days. The next watering is performed as needed. You can understand that the stalk has begun by the growth of the upper buds that has begun. The seedling is ready for transplanting after a new pair of leaves has grown.

If everything is done correctly, and the coffee tree does not give alarms, then the pot with the plant is put in a permanent place. If after some time flower stalks form on the cutting, then the cutting was performed without errors.

Advantages

Advantages of propagation by cuttings:

  • the features of the parent coffee tree are fully preserved;
  • flowering begins in the first year after rooting;
  • coffee berries are obtained in one year.

How to grow coffee from seed on a windowsill

Seed coffee

How to choose and where to buy coffee seeds

If you decide to grow a coffee tree at home, you need to purchase quality seeds.

Here are some nuances:

  1. The seed of this plant cannot be stored for a long time, as germination is quickly lost. 30 days after removing the grains from the tree, half of the seeds can sprout, and after another 15 days, only 10-15% of the seed sprouts.
  2. Coffee seeds must be in the red (not green) pulp for the bean to survive.
  3. You need to germinate Arabica coffee seeds until the first pair of true leaves appears.
  4. It is advisable to buy seeds in specialized stores or via the Internet, the date of collection should be on the package, no later than 1.5 months.
  5. You can purchase seed material from flower growers involved in growing coffee trees. In this case, you can pick ripe berries yourself.

Now let’s figure out how to grow a coffee tree at home. There are a lot of nuances here that you need to pay attention to.

The coffee seeds sold in the store are dry and have no pulp. The package does not indicate when they were harvested, when they were packaged. Often, due to the dishonesty of sellers, buyers get expired seeds, the germination of which is almost zero.

Seed preparation

coffee seeds

All coffee seeds, whether fresh or dried, need to be specially prepared. But even if the coffee tree seeds in the store are fresh, the following manipulations must be performed with them before sowing:

  1. Since coffee seeds are hard-to-grow planting material, they are specially scarified. The essence of this manipulation is to mechanically break the seed coat. It can be scratched with a knife or slightly pressed down with pliers. If this is not done, the seed will lie until the shell decays naturally.
  2. Then the parchment shell is removed, that is, sclerification is carried out, to accelerate germination. To make the work more successful, the planting material is soaked for two hours in warm water.
  3. Seeds must be processed in growth stimulants, for example, in Epin, Zircon or another preparation. They are soaked for 8 hours. If there are no special products, a pink solution of manganese or aloe juice will do. The soak time is the same.
  4. Some growers advise treating coffee seeds with hydrogen peroxide before sowing. First, a 3% solution is prepared, in which the seeds are kept for 10 minutes. Then, for a day, the inoculum is placed in a solution of a lower concentration (1 or 0.5%).

How coffee seeds germinate

Good seedlings can only appear from quality seeds, and their color, regardless of variety, should be white or milky white. Brown, green grains are not suitable for planting, just like those damaged by diseases or old, with traces of mold. Such planting material does not germinate at all. Seeds are immersed in loose soil to a depth of 1.5-2 cm, the container is covered with perforated plastic wrap or a glass jar to create a greenhouse effect.

When the process appears, it must be accustomed to the temperature of the apartment, but this must be done gradually. It is recommended to remove the film or jar several times a day for 1-2 minutes. The protective shelter is finally removed only when the coffee tree grows up.

Seed germination is an interesting process that is not like other plants. First, a root appears, then a grain is shown above the surface of the earth. If the seed is of high quality and healthy, then the root is strong. The shell of the grain does not fall off for a long time. It firmly covers the first pair of cotyledonous or pseudo leaflets.

Sometimes one seed gives two roots, from which two seedlings later grow, like twins – brothers. This is not a pathology, but a common occurrence for the coffee tree. You need to take care of the sprouts in the same way as for other shoots.

Difficulties arise only when picking. This procedure will have to be performed early, until the roots have had time to intertwine with each other. You need to work carefully so as not to damage the root system of each seedling.

Novice flower growers are wondering if it is necessary to remove the cotyledons on their own or wait for this to happen in a natural way. In no case should you interfere with the nature of the coffee tree. The cotyledons will fall off on their own. If you try to remove them, you can damage the leaves. Those plants from which the cotyledons were removed forcibly lag behind in development.

Necessary conditions for growing Arabica coffee

Arabica coffee

In order for the Arabica coffee tree grown in the apartment to develop successfully and bear fruit, comfortable conditions are created for it. The implementation of the following activities is the key to obtaining a healthy plant:

  • correct location;
  • maintaining humidity and air temperature;
  • choice of pot and soil;
  • lighting;
  • watering;
  • top dressing;
  • protection from pests and diseases.

Let’s take a closer look at cultivation.

Location

For a coffee tree, it is best to choose a warm room with windows facing south. As a rule, an exotic plant is grown on a windowsill, although coffee feels good on a rack located near the window. The main thing is to provide diffused light. In addition, the coffee tree needs good air circulation, but drafts are detrimental to the plant.

Humidity and temperature

Since coffee plants are native to hot and humid places, they are regularly sprayed when growing a tree at home. To do this, use only settled warm water. It should be remembered that both dry and oversaturated air have a negative effect on the coffee tree, development slows down.

In winter, the air temperature for the successful growth of coffee should be up to +18 degrees, in summer up to +22.

In the room where the young plant is located, the air temperature should not be below +12 degrees, this leads to problems with the root system. Mature coffee trees can grow in winter and at +10 degrees. But for this, the plants provide sufficient light and are rarely watered.

Lighting

Lighting for normal development must be good, otherwise the coffee will grow more slowly, and the beginning of fruiting will be delayed.

As already noted, plants like southern window sills. Although coffee trees cannot be called picky, young plants still need to be slightly shaded so that the sun does not burn the leaves. It is not difficult to shade a coffee tree, it is enough to attach an ordinary newspaper to the window with adhesive tape so that the light is diffused.

But adult plants need a lot of sunlight to form full-fledged ovaries. When embryos appear on the inflorescence, coffee trees shade. For example, in Brazil, seedlings are planted among other trees in order to provide openwork lighting in the future.

The soil

For growing coffee, choose breathable, loose soil through which moisture penetrates well. In a deep pot, a drainage layer is necessarily made.

There are two types of soil composition suitable for growing coffee trees:

  • two parts of river sand with large fractions and two parts of sifted peat are added to one part of the leaf turf;
  • equal parts of leafy sod, humus, black soil, sand and two parts of peat.

Crushed sphagnum moss must be added to the resulting nutrient mixture . It not only provides the necessary acidity of the soil, retains moisture, but also prevents the soil from caking.

coffee tree transplant

When growing a coffee tree on a windowsill, flower growers dream of it blooming as early as possible. The successful development of coffee and abundant flowering is facilitated by the annual transplantation of the plant in larger containers.

It should be borne in mind that the taproot goes deep into the soil, so choose a deep but narrow pot. When transplanting, the new container should be five centimeters larger than the previous one. An annual transplant allows you to get flowering coffee 4 years after planting the seeds. It should be remembered that in small pots the coffee tree will grow, but it will not bloom from it.

Before each transplant, new soil must be added. But it must meet the soil requirements mentioned above. A layer of drainage is laid out at the bottom. To provide the coffee tree with nutrients, fertilizers are added to the soil before planting. It can be mineralized compounds or manure. Since coffee needs phosphorus most of all, it is recommended to use bone meal or horn shavings as a feed: 200 grams are enough for 10 kg of soil.

The plant is removed from the old container and the root system is carefully examined. If there is damage or signs of rot, then these parts of the root must be cut off. The plant is installed in a pot, the root system is straightened and sprinkled with soil. Then watered with warm settled water.

Coffee tree: home care

A coffee tree

The coffee tree grown on the windowsill in the apartment, according to flower growers, is not too pretentious and picky. But some features of the technology still need to be observed.

Consider how to properly care for coffee at home:

  1. For permanent placement, a southern window sill is chosen, on which diffused lighting is arranged so that the sun’s rays do not damage the leaves of the coffee tree.
  2. It is necessary to grow a coffee tree at an air temperature of 25-27 degrees. These are the best conditions
  3. In addition, you need to monitor the temperature of the substrate in which the coffee grows. A thermometer is specially installed in the pots. If the column rises to a division of +31 degrees, this can be dangerous for the plant. We urgently need to lower the temperature. To do this, coffee is watered, sprayed, and water is poured into the pan next to the tree.
  4. Water the tree only as needed, that is, when the topsoil dries out. It is clear that coffee is irrigated more often in summer, but once a week is enough in winter.
  5. Watering an exotic plant should be done as the soil in the pot dries. For irrigation use clean warm water. In urban areas, water must be defended in order to get rid of chlorine harmful to plants.
  6. An exotic plant, unlike other indoor flowers, practically does not get sick and is not affected by pests. As a rule, the coffee tree gets sick most often when watering rules are violated. Soil that is too wet can cause root rot. If the problem could not be avoided, you need to stop watering and wait until the soil dries out. Then the plant is transplanted, after removing the diseased and damaged roots.

Pests on coffee are also rare guests. But if they have chosen the leaves of the plant, then they need to be destroyed with the help of special means – insecticides.

As you can see, growing a coffee tree at home is not so difficult if you use cuttings or high-quality seeds for propagation. Subject to agricultural technology, an exotic plant will stand on the windowsill or on the rack, pleasing the eyes with reddening coffee berries.

Rate article
Kubota
Add a comment