Pear varieties for the Urals

pear varieties for the urals Blog

Pear – food of the gods

The food of the gods is such a description of Homer’s long pear, although the fruits of that time were not distinguished by their softness. Delicate, oily, melting in the mouth, the pulp was acquired by the pear only in the 18th century, thanks to the efforts of Belgian and French breeders. And now, for the third century, unsurpassed varieties created by one of them – Williams, Bere Boek, Kure – have not left the scene. The first breeder who carried out interspecific hybridization of distant pear forms was I.V. Michurin. As a result of crossing the wild Ussuri pear with cultivated European varieties, he obtained relatively frost-resistant and fruitful varieties of pears for the Urals and not only: Bere winter Michurina, Bere Oktyabrya, Russian Esperen, Tolstobezhka, which are still used in breeding and are moving further north. A garden without a pear is not a garden. When the pear tree blooms with white or pink flowers, the garden becomes elegant, festive. And the nutritional value of its fruits can hardly be overestimated. They contain sugars, proteins, vitamins, trace elements, glycosides, and some acids. Pear fruits contain much more acids than apples, which have a capillary-strengthening and choleretic effect. The pear contains another important substance called arbutin, which is essential for the prevention and treatment of liver and kidney disease. According to the testimony of doctors, in order to get a daily dose of this substance, it is enough to eat 200 The pear contains another important substance called arbutin, which is essential for the prevention and treatment of liver and kidney disease. According to the testimony of doctors, in order to get a daily dose of this substance, it is enough to eat 200 The pear contains another important substance called arbutin, which is essential for the prevention and treatment of liver and kidney disease. According to the testimony of doctors, in order to get a daily dose of this substance, it is enough to eat 200300 gpear pulp. Its fruits contain potassium and therefore prevent salt deposition, promote the elimination of water and salt from the body.

Pear features

A pear, if grown under favorable conditions, is more durable than an apple tree. She has a pronounced trunk, a higher stem and a compressed crown shape. Her kidney awakening is also higher than that of an apple tree. And the shoot-forming ability is slightly lower – that’s why most pear varieties have a rare crown. The wood of young pear trees is whitish in color, of adults it is yellow-reddish, with a very beautiful texture.

Pear is a cross-pollinated plant. Its flowers are characterized by a not entirely pleasant smell, because of which pollinating insects are not very willing to visit these trees in comparison with the apple tree. Fruits are cuboid in shape with a vaguely pronounced neck (for example, in Bessemyanka), pear-shaped (Tonkovotka), elongated pear-shaped (Bere Oktyabrya) and bergamot-like, almost round (Autumn bergamot). Fruits are different in size and color.

The pear is picky, and amateur gardeners know this well. It needs warm areas, protected from cold winds, loose, water and breathable soil, good lighting and regular fertilization. Pears grafted on seedlings of winter-hardy cultivars and forest pears, i.e. those that are mostly grown in our gardens grow and bear fruit best on loamy and clayey soils, underlain by light loams. It does not put up well with heavy clayey moist soils, and light dry sandy soils are also not suitable for it. Since the root system of a pear lies deep, therefore, the soil needs to be deep, loose, fertile and sufficiently moist. Moreover, if a pear is grown grafted on dwarf rootstocks (for example, irga, chokeberry, hawthorn or cotoneaster),

Growing a pear correctly

Planting and caring for a pear is available to any gardener, even a beginner. For spring planting, holes for trees are dug in the fall, and for autumn planting, 3-4 weeks before. For a pear grafted on a vigorous stock, the diameter of the pit should be 100-120 cm, depth 50-60 cm, and for those grafted onto a weak stock, respectively – 70 and 50 cm… It will not be superfluous to repeat the pit preparation technology once again. When digging them, the upper cultural layer is folded in one direction, without mixing it with the lower one. If the soil is sandy, poor in nutrients, low moisture content, then it is improved by adding clay, peat or peat compost at the rate of 1 / 3-1 / 2 of the volume of the pit soil. If the soil is clayey or heavy loam, it is made loose by adding sand or peat. Low-lying peat, decomposed and aired, is especially good for growing pears. Before use, it is brought to a state of complete saturation with water so that it does not take moisture from the soil of the planting pit. Organic and mineral fertilizers are added to the soil for filling pits at the rate of 0.8-1 kg superphosphate, 0.1-0.15 kg potassium chloride or 1 kg wood ash and 1.5KGlime. In addition, 25-30 Kgorganic fertilizers. Amateur gardeners, as a rule, cultivate pears in the rows of apple trees. The distance between the trees is set aside so that planting and care is not difficult, there is sufficient nutritional area for the root system and good crown lighting (this is especially important for a pear grafted on a vigorous rootstock). In the first three years after planting, the trunk circle should be1m, in the next 4-7 years -1.5-1.7 m, and at the age of 8-10 years – 2-2.5 m… In the fall, the soil is dug to a depth of 1012 cm near the trunk and 15-20 cmon the rest of the near-barrel area. In the spring, they dug to a shallower depth so as not to damage the roots. The shovels are placed with an edge to the trunk. If root growth is formed, which happens with some undercut forms, then during digging it is dug up to the place of origin and cut out without leaving hemp. In early spring, the soil is loosened to retain moisture and kept moist throughout the growing season, removing weeds. It makes sense to mulch young plantings: autumn mulching will protect the roots from freezing in winter, and spring mulching will help to retain moisture and interfere with the germination of weeds. Fertilizers under a pear are recommended to be applied in the fall into circular grooves with a depth of 40-50 cmmade around the projection of the crown, or in the furrows. Foliar dressing is of particular importance for pears – spraying plants with solutions of nutrients that stimulate growth, yield formation and increase the winter hardiness of trees. For this, a 0.5-1% solution of urea is used 8-10 days after flowering and again after 10-14 days. The autumn processing of pears after harvesting the fruits and yellowing of 30% of the leaves with a 5% urea solution is very useful in the fight against such a serious disease as scab.

Pruning pear trees

In the year of planting, the pear grows weakly and in the spring it almost does not need pruning. When the crown skeleton is formed, pruning is minimized, observing only the principle of placing skeletal formations in accordance with the adopted crown design, bending excess branches to give them a horizontal position. To do this, they are pulled with twine to a nail driven into the base of the tree trunk. This long-known technique invariably leads to an acceleration of fruiting. It has already been said that, in contrast to the apple tree, the crown of the pear is more rare and light, the annual growth is stronger and the pruning scheme in this case will be different. If they are not trimmed, then few branching is formed. Shortening the shoots of the continuation of skeletal branches during the formation of the crown by about 1/4 of the length leads to the appearance of one or two lateral branches and enhances the development of overgrowing branches on the lower parts of the growths. Correct pruning of fruiting pear trees is one of the most important measures affecting the duration of the fruiting period and increasing yields. A high yield and good quality of fruits can be obtained only when shoots with a length of 30-40 cm, which is typical of young trees. In aging trees, the annual growth of shoots is weakened. The only way to induce normal growth and strengthen the formation of young fruit formations is the correct shortening pruning, “light rejuvenation”. With this pruning scheme, the branches are shortened along the entire periphery of the crown and partially inside it, mainly on the lateral branches and fruit formations. The signal is a decrease in the length of the increments by 20-25 cm… Light rejuvenation is done during the period of full fruiting and weakening of growth for 4-5-year-old wood, that is, for the last annual growth of normal length (30-40 cm). In addition, old and weak fruits are removed, and strong ones are thinned out. All these actions are performed in the spring after the end of severe frosts.

Diseases and pests of pear

Many diseases and pests can harm the pear. Most of all diseases and pests are harmed by the scab, which affects leaves, shoots and fruits. A fungus causes the disease, which successfully overwinters in fallen leaves. Young fruits crumble, large ones crack and become ugly. To combat scab, plants are sprayed with 1% Bordeaux liquid (according to100 g copper sulfate and lime on 10 lwater): the first time when the buds open, the second at the end of flowering, the third – 10-12 days after the second and the fourth – after the same interval. It is necessary to collect and destroy fallen leaves or spray them with a solution of mineral fertilizers: urea (7%), ammonium nitrate (10%), ammonium sulfate (15%) or potassium chloride (7%), trying not to get on the trunk and skeletal branches. To combat fruit rot, it is necessary to collect and burn mummified fruits in autumn, collect and remove volunteers in summer, and preventive treatments with 1% Bordeaux liquid – on opening leaves and before flowering. Of the pests, the pear gall mite is especially dangerous, which causes swelling on the leaves. To combat it, it is effective to use infusions and decoctions of insecticidal plants – potatoes, onions, dandelions, tobacco, makhorka, tomato, yarrow, citrus, garlic. The green apple aphid sucks the juice from the buds and young leaves, as a result, the leaves and shoots stop growing, curl up and die off. Good results for combating it are obtained by using a soap solution, especially if the branches are immersed in this solution for a short time. Spraying with plant poisons – aconites, henbane, raven’s eye, etc. is used. The caterpillars of the winter moth eat holes in young leaves, buds and flowers, pulling together the damaged parts with cobwebs, then roughly eat the leaves, leaving only the thickest veins. In the fight against it, spraying with infusion of red or black elderberry, hot pepper, spotted hemlock, tobacco, makhorka, tomato, garlic is used. as a result, leaves and shoots stop growing, curl up and die off. Good results for combating it are obtained by using a soap solution, especially if the branches are immersed in this solution for a short time. Spraying with plant poisons – aconites, henbane, raven’s eye, etc. is used. The caterpillars of the winter moth eat holes in young leaves, buds and flowers, pulling together the damaged parts with cobwebs, then roughly eat the leaves, leaving only the thickest veins. In the fight against it, spraying with infusion of red or black elderberry, hot pepper, spotted hemlock, tobacco, makhorka, tomato, garlic is used. as a result, leaves and shoots stop growing, curl up and die off. Good results for combating it are obtained by using a soap solution, especially if the branches are immersed in this solution for a short time. Spraying with plant poisons – aconites, henbane, raven’s eye, etc. is used. The caterpillars of the winter moth eat holes in young leaves, buds and flowers, pulling together the damaged parts with cobwebs, then roughly eat the leaves, leaving only the thickest veins. In the fight against it, spraying with infusion of red or black elderberry, hot pepper, spotted hemlock, tobacco, makhorka, tomato, garlic is used. Spraying with plant poisons – aconites, henbane, raven’s eye, etc. is used. The caterpillars of the winter moth eat holes in young leaves, buds and flowers, pulling together the damaged parts with cobwebs, then roughly eat the leaves, leaving only the thickest veins. In the fight against it, spraying with infusion of red or black elderberry, hot pepper, spotted hemlock, tobacco, makhorka, tomato, garlic is used. Spraying with plant poisons – aconites, henbane, raven’s eye, etc. is used. The caterpillars of the winter moth eat holes in young leaves, buds and flowers, pulling together the damaged parts with cobwebs, then roughly eat the leaves, leaving only the thickest veins. In the fight against it, spraying with infusion of red or black elderberry, hot pepper, spotted hemlock, tobacco, makhorka, tomato, garlic is used.

Pear varieties

Skorospelka Sverdlovsk . High winter hardy early summer pear variety for the Urals. Fruits are round, apple-shaped, weighing 60-90 g, dull yellow, the pulp is very juicy, good honey-sour-sweet taste.

Permyachka . The fruits ripen in the 20th of August and are consumed until September. The trees are medium-sized, fast-growing, with good winter hardiness, early-growing and fruitful. Fruits weighing 140-160 g, pure light yellow color. The pulp is white, juicy, sweet.

Large sweet . A variety for the middle lane, winter-hardy, fruitful. Fruit weight100 g, pear-shaped, yellow, moderately sweet, ripen from mid-September.

Isetskaya juicy . The variety is winter-hardy, fruitful. Pear-shaped fruits, weighing110 g, the pulp is juicy, almost oily type, sweet. The fruits ripen in the second half of September and are consumed within two weeks.

Bere yellow improved . Winter-hardy variety. Fruits of medium size, weight90 g, greenish, light yellow when fully ripe. The pulp is juicy, good sweet and sour taste. Fruits are harvested in late September – early October and stored for 1.5-2 months.

Transcendental . Winter-hardy and productive variety. Fruit weight100 g, the taste is sweet and sour with a predominance of sugar, the pulp is juicy, fine-grained. Fruits ripen in the second half of September.

Gzidon . The trees are undersized, with thick shoots, fruitful, moderately hardy. Fruit weight120 gand larger. Ripen in early September.

Sentyabrina . The trees are medium-sized, productive, with fairly good winter hardiness. Fruits weighing up to180 g, elongated limo-shaped, green. The pulp is very juicy, tender, excellent taste. The term for ripening and consumption is September.

Penguin . The variety has a very high shoot-producing ability. Fruit weight120 g, pear-shaped, beautiful. The pulp is tender, thin, with a good sweet taste. Ripening period – late August-early September.

Lyubushka . The trees are vigorous, winter-hardy, with good productivity. Fruit weight100 g, yellowish with a pink tan, juicy pulp, good or very good taste, sweet and sour. Ripening – September-early October.

Polyushko . Winter-hardy variety for the middle strip, fruits weighing 110-120 g, green, late autumn ripening, good sour-sweet, slightly bland taste.

Option . The trees are vigorous, highly winter-hardy, fruits weighing80 g, ovoid, yellow. The pulp is juicy, with a very pleasant intense spicy taste, better than that of Bere yellow. Maturation – October.

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