Planting and growing peas in the country

planting and growing peas in the country Blog

What is good about peas?

Peas have a high nutritional value. Its seeds are easily digested and are well absorbed by the human body. They contain from 26 to 30% of proteins, vitamins A, B, B1, B2, C, E. The last vitamin regulates the metabolism of fats, proteins and nucleic acids. In addition, nodule bacteria live on the roots of all legumes, which fix nitrogen from the air, which feed the plants and enrich the soil at the place of cultivation.

All varieties of peas are divided into sugar (blade fruits are devoid of a leathery film, they can be used together with the wings), peeling, cultivated for the sake of tender grains, and semi-sugar, in which at a young age there is no leathery fibrous layer in the bean wings (you can eat the whole bean with sashes). In addition, there are two varieties of peeling varieties – smooth grain and brain. The latter have folds on the surface of the grain, resembling the convolutions of the brain. These varieties are distinguished by high sugar content.

Sugar varieties include Zhegalova 112 (the most common in Russia), Inexhaustible 195, Sugar Brain 6, Sugar Brovtsina 28, Sugar 2 (a relatively new variety with a large bean, in which 10-11 large peas), De Grasse 68-28. To semi-sugar – Karaganda 1053, to shelling – Vegetable 76, Excellent 240, Alpha, Early 301, Adagum, Viola, Voronezh green, Early Gribovsky 11, Emerald, Perfection 65-3, Skvirsky, July 38, Standard cerebral 3, Freedom 10, Miracle of Kelvedon 1378.

Peas are a plant of a temperate climate and a long day. Caring for him is easy. Its growing season in the country is from 60 to 85 days. Best of all, it grows and develops at a temperature of 17-20 degrees. With a higher level of heat and dry air, fruit set is suspended. This process is also bad in rainy weather.

Peas belong to the group of cold-resistant crops, they tolerate frost well when grown.

From the foregoing, it follows that planting peas should be started early in the country, while there is no heat and there is enough moisture in the soil. And the longitude of the day with early planting is excellent for peas.

The best predecessors for peas: pumpkin, cucumber, cabbage, tomato, beetroot, sunflower, corn. You can return it to its original place only after 4 years.

Planting and caring for peas

Well-rotted manure or compost (4-5 kg ​​/ m2), as well as potash fertilizers (13-15 g / m2) are applied to the area allotted for this crop.

Despite the nitrogen-fixing ability, peas still need small doses of nitrogen fertilizers (2 g/m2). Phosphorus fertilizers are applied under it along with sowing seeds at a dose of 5–7 g per linear meter. It is best to add ammophos to the rows when sowing, it contains, in addition to phosphorus, a small amount of nitrogen, then there is no need to introduce this element separately.

Light sandy, as well as marshy soils in the country are of little use for growing this crop. The best soils for it are loamy and sandy, containing enough phosphorus, potassium and lime. Pea seeds can germinate at a temperature of 1-2°C. However, cold weather greatly retards the growth of seedlings and contributes to the spread of diseases. The optimum temperature for its growth is 15-20°C. Many varieties tolerate excess moisture in the soil well, but the proximity of groundwater adversely affects their growth and development.

Landing is carried out in a tape way. The distance between the rows in the tape is 15 cm, between the tapes – 45 cm, between the seeds – 5-7 cm. When the plants reach a height of 7-10 cm, it is necessary to install stakes on the sides of the rows and pull horizontally 5-6 rows of twine or wire. This will provide good support for the culture. As a support, you can use a grid, stakes, branches left after pruning fruit trees.

When growing, peas are very demanding on moisture during the flowering period and the fruit is formed. Therefore, sowing care consists in mulching with peat, straw, sawdust or black plastic wrap, as a result of which it is possible to reduce water loss, as well as suppress the growth of weeds. Fruit picking begins about a month after the start of mass flowering. Their regular collection contributes to the formation of new beans on the plant. The beans at the bottom of the plants ripen first.

Diseases and pests of peas. measures to combat them.

Peas attract many pests. Its shoots are severely damaged, and sometimes completely destroyed by nodule weevils. During the period of budding and flowering, the plants are attacked by pea aphids and pea thrips. The leaves of peas, and often the fruits, are eaten by the caterpillars of the cabbage, pea scoop, and sometimes the field moth. Immature pea seeds in beans damage the larvae of the pea weevil, as well as caterpillars of the codling moth. Pea seeds damaged by a caryopsis lose their germination capacity and are harmful to nutrition.

Do not bypass peas and diseases. The most common is ascochitosis. Seeds affected by ascochitosis have low germination and serve as a source of disease spread. In wet years, a significant part of pea crops is affected by downy mildew, and in dry years – by powdery mildew and root rot. During humid and warm summers, peas are often affected by bacteriosis.

The most important control measures to prevent diseases are crop rotation and seed dressing.

At the first sign of powdery mildew, peas are sprayed with a 1% suspension of colloidal sulfur. Against the pea codling moth, 7-10 days after the start of flowering, but no later than 20 days before harvesting, the crops are treated with a solution of karbofos. It is possible to replace karbofos with INTAVIR solution.

From non-chemical means of protection, as a pest control measure, you can use a decoction of tomato tops, an infusion of garlic, an infusion of onion peel, a decoction of wormwood, an infusion of dandelion and horse sorrel roots, an infusion of marigolds. And it is better to plant these plants next to peas.

To destroy the larvae and eggs of pests, post-harvest plant residues should be burned or removed from the dacha, and in the fall, a deep digging of the site should be carried out.

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