This is the name of the garden raspberry for its love for sunny, bright places, for its unpretentiousness and early maturity, for the fact that it blooms at a later date, when spring frosts are not so terrible, and most importantly, for its berries – sweet, tender, fragrant, filled with the sun. If you have raspberries growing in your garden, planting and caring for them will only give you pleasant chores.
How many raspberry bushes should you plant?
Lot. Let’s try to calculate. To satisfy a person’s need for vitamins, you need4 Kgraspberries. This is the annual rate. This means that a family of 4-5 people needs about20 Kg, which can be collected from 30-40 bushes. With proper care, 20 is enough, if you do not sell part of the crop on the market. Raspberries can be eaten fresh, or they can be harvested for the winter.
Where to plant raspberries?
Planting raspberries along the fence, as is our custom, is not the best option. Such a raspberry tree usually looks neglected and generally becomes a breeding ground for diseases and pests.
Prefers loose soil, rich in humus, not waterlogged. Will not mind if you add rotted leaves, sawdust, shavings to the soil. It can grow in one place up to 15 years, but this must not be allowed, so that the raspberries do not become exhausted from diseases and pests.
How do raspberries grow?
The garden raspberry is a shrub, but the shrub is special. He has only an underground part, consisting of a rhizome of stem origin and adventitious roots, has a long-term development cycle. And the aboveground part consists only of biennial branches, from which the crop is formed, and annual replacement shoots.
In autumn, after harvesting, the fruiting branches die, but at the base on the rhizome buds are left, from which in the spring fruit-bearing branches develop, and from the buds on the rhizome and roots – new replacement shoots and offspring. Only annual branches hibernate, and so on every year. Raspberry begins to bloom from the top, flowering lasts 25-30 days. The last flowers bloom when the berries are already beginning to ripen.
The aboveground part of the raspberry is not hardy enough, so it needs a good snow cover. Better yet, for the winter, bend the stems to the ground, fix and cover with snow.
Choosing the best variety
For a novice gardener who is not yet familiar with such a plant as raspberry, planting and caring for it, it is better to take zoned varieties. Some grow low-yield varieties, but with berries that are especially tasty or large and suitable for home processing. It is important to take into account such qualities as winter hardiness (which means that we need varieties with shoots that can be bent down for the winter), resistance to diseases and pests.
We plant raspberries. Landing rules.
In recent years, methods of separate cultivation of fruiting stems and young shoots have gained popularity. Two plots for one raspberry? Is it too luxurious? No, it is wasteful to set aside an area for planting a large number of bushes, but to collect a small crop. And with separate plantings: they grow shoots, then they harvest. Always with berries!
The rules for planting raspberries are simple. It is better to plant raspberries in the fall, if you did not have time – you can in the spring, in April – early May. Prepare the soil for the correct planting of raspberries in advance: remove all vegetation along with the roots, apply organic fertilizers (10-20 kg / sq. M), dig well. Vegetable crops are desirable as a precursor. But you should not plant raspberries after potatoes, tomatoes, and other nightshade crops, as they are affected by the same diseases. They sit according to the chosen scheme: 1×1 m, or 2×0.5 m, or 1.5×1.5 m.20 cm, diameter 30 cm… The roots of the seedlings are lowered into them (1-2 plants per hole), covered with loose earth and watered, after the soil settles, filling the voids, pour loose earth – so that the buds on the rhizome are at a depth of 2-3 cm…
It is possible that you will find traces of fungal diseases and dead buds on the bark of the seedlings. Cut off the stems near the soil and discard. If the buds are alive and the roots are strong, shorten the seedlings to a height40 cm…
Mulch the soil around the seedlings, loosen between the rows, and also mulch with black foil, humus, straw. If all the rules are followed, the seedlings will take root.
Raspberry care from spring to winter
In the spring on the plantation of the second year after planting, tie the shoots to stakes, loosen the soil too. In general, the stems should be freed from snow as soon as possible, inspected well, and damage should be determined. Raspberries need proper pruning. If there are a lot of shoots, they are healthy, they select 5-6 best per bush, and the rest are cut out at the base. The stems left behind are trimmed to the first well-developed living bud.
There may be few shoots. In this case, leave even the weak and broken ones, cutting them to the point of damage. If the stems are badly damaged, it is better to cut them all out and take care of the growth that will bear fruit next summer. If the stems are very frozen, the crop can still be saved if you cut the shoots to the first of the buds from above.
The stems left for fruiting are tied to supports before budding begins – in a dense bundle at a height 1.5 m… Adjacent raspberry bushes are sometimes tied together – tunnels are formed. And sometimes they are tilted and tied to the stakes of neighboring bushes – a fan is obtained. The trellis method is also used: the simplest trellis is two wires stretched at a height1.5 m, and the stems are enclosed between the wires.
Before the harvest ripens, care consists in systematic loosening of the soil, removal of overgrowth and weeds, and watering.
They drink along the furrows so that the water flows directly to the roots without touching the crown, the water consumption is 30-40 l / sq. m. After watering, the soil is loosened.
Fertilize raspberry bushes with manure, peat, humus, compost, spending on 1 sq. m near 8 Kgfertilizers. Straw is laid in a layer of 1520 cm (4 Kg on the 1 sq. m). Mulching is a must.
Mineral fertilizers are applied annually at the rate of 40-60 g / sq. m superphosphate, 30-40 g potassium sulphide, 20-30 g ammonium nitrate.
The harvest time is extended for 3-4 weeks every 2-3 days. You cannot leave ripe berries on the bush – the quality will deteriorate. The berries are picked in the morning when the dew dries up, or in the evening when the heat subsides. After harvesting, delicate berries are stored in the refrigerator for no more than 36 hours.
Propagating raspberries – cuttings or seeds?
I fell in love with the variety – for propagation by cuttings, use lignified or green shoots. You can also root cuttings with a diameter of 3-5 cm, length 8-12 cm… They are planted directly into the ground from a mixture of peat, sand, turf soil (2: 1: 1). Planting depth 3-5 cm…
Reproduction of raspberries is also possible by seeds. But this method is troublesome and, most importantly, varietal characteristics when grown from seeds, as a rule, are not preserved.