The main methods of protecting roses from low temperatures
In the Botanical Garden of Moscow State University, for a number of years, methods of protecting roses in the winter (covering with peat, earth or spruce branches) have been studied. These techniques are simple and inexpensive, suitable both for large areas and for amateur growers. However, it is necessary to comply with certain general rules of agricultural technology.
It is necessary to lay a rose garden in a well-drained area.
It is impossible to shortly cut the shoots that have grown during the growing season: after the autumn processing of roses, only weak, broken or damaged stems are removed from pests and diseases.
To shelter roses for the winter, they use spruce branches, which are placed on the ground, and the roses are bent down on it and attached with iron studs 30-30 meters long.35 cm.
If the bushes are large, overgrown, then the shoots need to be bent slowly, gradually, from the bottom up, so as not to break them. Shelter of roses for the winter is best done in dry weather in early October, when the air temperature does not drop below minus 2-6 degrees. In severe frosts, branches (especially remontant and climbing ones) become brittle and break off easily.
After about a month, in the first ten days of November (terms for central Russia), they begin to shelter the bushes. A second layer of spruce branches is placed on the plants, and roofing on top, which will protect the bushes from getting wet. Along the edges, this material is also attached with studs. Small vents should be left between the roofing strips. If the air is not ventilated, then during thaws in warm, humid winters and in early spring, roses will rot and be affected by the coniothyrium fungus.
The original way to hide roses
Amateur flower growers offer their own ways to shelter spray roses.
One of them differs from all known ones in that the plants are finally covered before the onset of severe frosts, until frost holes form on the shoots. This is what flower growers-amateurs of St. Petersburg do. In mid-September, rose bushes are spudded to protect the root collars and shoot bases from possible night frosts at this time. The day before the final shelter (in mid-October, at positive temperatures), the leaves are removed from the shoots and sprayed with fungicides. The next day, the stems are bent and pinned to the ground, the bushes are unraveled. Then covered with plastic bags (size 68-100 cm) filled with sawdust or styrofoam (layer15 cm). The bags are sewn up with threads (not welded) so that, if necessary, it is possible to change the filler without shortening the film.
Bags on plantings of spray roses should fit snugly against each other, and with their edges to the ground. In order for the covering material to be blown away by the wind, boards are laid on top. A small air gap remains under the bushes. During the winter, there is a favorable temperature. So, during frosts on the street up to minus 28°C, it was not below minus 1°C under the bags. When the temperature dropped to minus 45°C, it was minus 4°C under the shelter. In severe frosts, an additional layer of bags must be applied. During the winter, it is easy to control the condition of the plants. It is enough to lift any bag (it is light), inspect the bushes and lower the bag back into place.
Open roses in the spring when the weather is warm. First, the shoots are left pinned to the ground. They are always clean, green, like in summer. The bags are left nearby for the first time. In the event of a sharp cold snap, you can quickly protect the roses again. Then the bags are removed in a dark room and stored there until autumn, as the plastic film deteriorates in the light. In this way, almost all roses are preserved, including heat-loving ones, of different garden groups.
Roses begin to bloom 10-15 days earlier than usual.