Why fight weeds?
When growing garden and horticultural crops, you constantly have to fight pests, diseases and weeds. Weed control in the garden is carried out by every summer resident, but not always successfully. But if pests and diseases eat the crop for a short period, then weeds parasitize from early spring to late autumn. And the harmfulness of weeds is detected only after the harvest is harvested. Damage from weeds is especially noticeable with the systematic use of organic fertilizers. If cultivated plants use nutrients from fertilizers by an average of 40%, then weeds by 56-70%. Therefore, on heavily weedy soils, fertilizers will not be able to exert their full effect. Some types of weeds not only absorb nutrients from the soil, but are also able, with the help of their roots, to absorb them even from the roots of crops, such as creeping couch grass,
By the appearance of weeds, one can judge how fertile the soil and its acidity. So, quinoa, odorless chamomile are especially fond of nitrogen. Yarutka field, thistle field grow better on soils where there is a lot of potassium. You can judge the high acidity of the soil by such weeds as horsetail, plantain, sorrel, tricolor violet. And it is impossible to grow a high yield on such soils without liming.
Beginner gardeners usually underestimate the damage caused by weeds or simply do not know how to get rid of weeds and how to protect against them. Weeds not only reduce soil fertility due to the consumption of moisture and nutrients, but also inhibit crops, shading cultivated plants; on weedy crops, the soil temperature decreases by at least 2-4 °. This reduces the activity of soil organisms, slows down the decomposition of organic matter and reduces the amount of nutrients in the soil.
The roots of some weeds secrete phytoncides that inhibit the growth and development of cultivated plants. Weeds develop a large number of dangerous species of pests and pathogens that spread to cultivated plants. For example, mites and aphids concentrate on sow thistle and field bindweed, cabbage pests breed on cruciferous weeds, and the Colorado potato beetle initially lives on black nightshade and henbane.
Great harm to vegetable plants is caused by various soil nematodes that breed on field thistle, white marijuana.
Why is it so hard to control weeds?
Due to the significant adaptability to the conservation of the species, weeds have such biological abilities as high fertility, uneven ripening and high shedding of seeds, unfriendly emergence of seedlings, the presence of a dormant period not only for seeds, but also for rhizomes and aboveground stems.
The arable layer of the soil, no matter how cultivated, always contains weed seeds. With a topsoil depth of up to25 cmon the1 m2plot may contain from 10 to 35 thousand viable seeds of weeds. White gauze sprouts throughout the growing season, the seeds are able to germinate in the soil in a very wide temperature range from 3 to 36°C. One plant can produce up to 700 thousand seeds. In the soil, germination lasts up to 8 years, and viability – up to 38 years. So, one plant of field thistle on average is able to form up to 19 thousand seeds, shepherd’s purse – up to 73 thousand, wood lice (medium stellate) can give 2-3 generations over the summer, because. her growing season is only 40 days.
Seedlings appear in early spring at a soil temperature of 2°C. The plant produces up to 25 thousand seeds, which remain viable in the soil for 5-8 years, and viability – up to 30 years.
Long-term practice shows that the more weedy crops are during the growing season, the more, despite the measures taken, weed plants remain by the autumn period and the higher the number of weed seeds entering the soil.
From all that has been said, we can conclude that weeds should not be seeded either on the beds, or on the boundaries and paths of the plots. Apply only rotted manure. In addition, many types of weeds reproduce by vegetative organs – offspring of roots, underground shoots, bulbs, tubers. These weeds have a strong root system. For example, in a field plant, the root system consists of a vertical (up to 6-7 m) and a large number of horizontal (child) renewal roots. In the place of one shoot of a bodyak, more than 60 new rosettes appear next year.
In creeping couch grass seedlings appear from seeds from a depth to 10 cm and from segments of rhizomes 5-15 cm from depth to 25 cm. The bulk of underground stems (rhizomes) is located in the soil layer 0-15 cm. The total length of all rhizomes in this layer is1 m2 reaches 84 m, and the mass 420 g.
In horsetail, the root system consists of rhizomes up to 100 cm, which are located mainly at a depth of 30-60 cm, in the coltsfoot the common root goes deep into 1m, and to the sides – up to 2 m. The root system of the field bindweed consists of vertical (up to6 m) and horizontal roots. From one plant for 2-3 years, a center of clogging is formed with an area of up to2 m. Bindweed vitality is extremely high. This is the most harmful and difficult to eradicate weed in garden plots and you can get rid of it only by combining mechanical methods with chemical ones.
Dealing with weeds in a variety of ways
The site must be dug up to the maximum depth (for the entire arable layer) and the root segments must be collected. With shallow digging, weediness may increase next year due to the growth of shoots from root segments.
If creeping couch grass prevails on the site, then you should dig with a shovel. In the presence of root weeds (yellow thistle, field thistle, field bindweed, etc.), it is recommended to dig up the plots with garden pitchforks, because these weeds have more brittle roots and must be dug out carefully. Weeds selected from the soil should be removed from the site or burned. It’s best to do this in the fall.
In the spring, on the beds set aside for early-sown crops – radishes, carrots, parsley, dill, etc., harrowing is carried out with a rake. The first row in the garden should be noted so that, knowing the distance between the rows, it is necessary to constantly destroy the newly emerged weeds with a garden pitchfork. After emergence of the crop, the weeds in the rows are harvested by hand. Processing of row spacing should be carried out before closing rows of culture.
In areas allocated for sowing late crops, harrowing should not be rushed. You need to wait for as many weeds as possible to appear, and then destroy them by harrowing just before sowing heat-loving crops. During the entire growing season, crops are regularly loosened, weeding is very important. Weeds must be removed from the beds, because they contain substances that inhibit the growth and development of the crop.
An effective way to control weeds in the garden is to mulch the soil. As mulch, you can use humus, chopped straw, sawdust, old roofing material. Mulch covers areas of soil that are not occupied by crops. At the same time, the germination of weeds is inhibited, the evaporation of moisture is reduced, the formation of a soil crust is prevented, and as a result, plant nutrition is improved. On soils with excessive moisture, mulching is less effective. If the areas where they are going to plant trees, shrubs and strawberries are heavily clogged with perennial weeds, then it is better to postpone planting for a year, using its time to clear the area from weeds. The roots of perennial weeds contain large reserves of nutrients in the form of water-soluble carbohydrates,
In order to achieve the depletion of root weed species – sow thistle, bindweed, dandelion, coltsfoot, etc., it is necessary to cut the stems and leaves in the very first days after the emergence of seedlings, and bury the roots with a shovel to a depth of 18-20 cm. It must be done during the summer and autumn several times as it grows.
In the fall, as mentioned above, dig this area as deep as possible and collect all the segments of the roots, because they take root in moist soil and give new shoots.
Three Ways to Fight
Rhizome weeds can be controlled using the following methods: strangulation, fume and freezing.
How to remove weeds by strangulation? Underground organs (rhizomes of couch grass, horsetail, reed, etc.) should be cut into the smallest possible parts. After that, they come out of dormancy and give many new shoots, which are then destroyed with a chopper or shovel, the soil is dug up, carefully closing the top layer down.
Fume method: drying under the rays of the sun rhizomes extracted from the soil during processing.
Freezing is effective in years with little snow and frost.
In autumn, the site is deeply dug up and left in the form of boulders. The roots of weeds that are on the surface freeze out. In the spring, these rhizomes must be collected with a rake, and the rest buried deeper.
Since it is very difficult to get rid of weeds, especially perennial ones, it is impossible to completely eradicate them with agricultural technology. And therefore, if the site is heavily clogged with perennial weeds, you can use a weed killer, herbicide, roundup, 36% aqueous solution. It can be applied against weeds in the spring before sowing crops or after early harvested crops. Weeds must be in a vegetative state at the time of spraying. The treatment gives the greatest effect at a height of a weed plant 10-15 cm. After spraying, do not weed the weeds for 3-4 weeks, because the herbicide moves through the leaves and stems to the roots, causing gradual wilting, yellowing and death of the plant. Do not allow the herbicide to come into contact with cultivated plants. Roundup, getting into the soil, is quickly decomposed by soil microorganisms.
How to use Roundup against weeds: pour into the sprayer2 lwater, then add80 gherbicide and add water to10 l, mix it all up. Consumption of working solution5 lon the100 m2.
The working solution is prepared immediately before treatment and used on the same day. After spraying, it is necessary that there is no rain for at least 6 hours.
All precautions must be observed when treating with a weed killer.